the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like "hard-then which makes no grammatical sense. Commas after "i.e." and "e.g." Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after "i.e." and "e.g." used in a sentence, as in "sentences often contain spelling errors,.e., words spelled incorrectly". If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. Academic writing includes texts like original research papers, research proposals, and literature reviews, whether published or not.
Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. "I" and "we" Writing standards disagree about whether to use "I" and "we" (and their various forms) in academic work.
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The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand.e." translating to "that is and "e.g." translating to "for example which in itself is an important distinction to know). As seen in rats Carlin (1972). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Using "we" allows it to simply sink into the background, where it belongs. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy.
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