Using Demographic and Health Survey data from thirteen African countries, I show that change in the ethnic identity of the President leads to a shift of women identifying with the new ruling ethnic group of around.5 of the population in non-democracies, or on average. This relationship is robust to the use of a variety of control variables and different specifications as well as the use of qualitative case study evidence from Ghana and Guinea; I also suggest it may be an underestimate due to data limitations. Politicians decentralize to solve a discrete, often short-term political problem. Mozambique, heroin, drugs, transnational crime, smuggling. I then test these ideas using qualitative data from Bangladesh. Working Paper 191, the Problem and Promise of Coproduction. The idea that multiple actors often interact to coproduce public goods and services helped shift development thinking away from one-size-fits-all policy prescriptions based on free market principles to a more nuanced position that recognises organizational and institutional diversity. However, this interpretation, with its emphasis on objective reality, is contradicted by some local, subjective experiences of inequality and corruption. I examine how the arrival of local government shifted the nations politics from a typical 20th century, left-right axis of competition deeply unsuited to a society like Bolivia, to an ethnic and cultural axis more closely aligned with its major social cleavage. While performance legitimacy and traditional legitimacy are also shown to be important phenomena, this study highlights why these are fragile bases for legitimacy, especially considering rising modernization forces and economic slowdown. The history of safe areas in Iraq, Bosnia, Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Sudan shows some of the severe limitations in the safety that has been offered reflecting the complex agendas of national and international actors who may perpetrate or tolerate large-scale abuse despite and often.
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This trade agenda is likely to expand in the future and will have important implications on digital and economic development. In the UK and Europe, realignment would likely be triggered by Brexit, and the (partial) collapse of the Eurozone. Our analysis likely extends to a broader class of deep reforms with long-term consequences. It aims to uncover the rationale behind the decision making processes that, combined with drought, led to increasing water scarcity, with a view to understanding how political economy factors impact water security in a megacity such as So Paulo. Here, rural properties grew larger, land inequality and dispersion fell, and development indicators improved. There, the Mozambican traffickers take it off the dhows and move it more than 3000 km by road to Johannesburg, and from there others ship it to Europe. The general motivation behind reform was to enhance the political representation of ordinary citizens in general and that of marginalized ethno-regional groups in particular, and to devolve control over resources to the county level. . Explanations identified in focus group and interview data are organised into four themes: (i) PS as a poorly implemented and accessed right to health care; (ii) PS as a privilege reserved for elites; (iii) PS as a favour or moral obligation to friends or family. In actual practice, however, land registration and titling programs can be highly partisan, bitterly contentious, and carried forward by political logics that diverge strongly from the market-enhancing vision.